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The newly developed carrier granular sludge (CGS) with polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads assistance showed higher intensity and anammox activity than the natural granular sludge (NGS). Through comprehensive investigation, it was found: (1) the gel beads provided a stable framework of cells entangle with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to enhance the sludge intensity. In this framework, β-polysaccharides are distributed at the edge of CGS as a protection layer, α-polysaccharides and proteins are spread in the whole cross-section as backbones, and Fe2+/Fe3+ in CGS-PVA/CS/Fe act as bridges to link with the negatively charged groups on bacterial surfaces and proteins. (2) The porous gel beads satisfied a relatively unimpeded mass transfer. Thus, the sludge activity, microbe's metabolism, membrane transportation and environmental adaption in CGS were apparently improved. The results improved the understanding about the advantages of the CGS and indicated their possible application in full-scale anammox processes. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Jinxing Wang, Jidong Liang. Insight: High intensity and activity carrier granular sludge cultured using polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/iron gel beads. Bioresource technology. 2021 Apr;326:124778

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PMID: 33545627

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