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Ras homology (RHO) GTPases are signalling proteins that have crucial roles in triggering multiple immune functions. Through their interactions with a broad range of effectors and kinases, they regulate cytoskeletal dynamics, cell polarity and the trafficking and proliferation of immune cells. The activity and localization of RHO GTPases are highly controlled by classical families of regulators that share consensus motifs. In this Review, we describe the recent discovery of atypical modulators and partners of RHO GTPases, which bring an additional layer of regulation and plasticity to the control of RHO GTPase activities in the immune system. Furthermore, the development of large-scale genetic screening has now enabled researchers to identify dysregulation of RHO GTPase signalling pathways as a cause of many immune system-related diseases. We discuss the mutations that have been identified in RHO GTPases and their signalling circuits in patients with rare diseases. The discoveries of new RHO GTPase partners and genetic mutations in RHO GTPase signalling hubs have uncovered unsuspected layers of crosstalk with other signalling pathways and may provide novel therapeutic opportunities for patients affected by complex immune or broader syndromes.


Rana El Masri, Jérôme Delon. RHO GTPases: from new partners to complex immune syndromes. Nature reviews. Immunology. 2021 Feb 05

PMID: 33547421

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