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    The growth of psychrotolerant aerobic spore-forming bacteria during refrigerated storage often results in the spoilage of fluid milk, leading to off-flavors and curdling. Because of their low toxicity, biodegradability, selectivity, and antimicrobial activity over a range of conditions, glycolipids are a novel and promising intervention to control undesirable microbes. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a commercial glycolipid product to inhibit spore germination, spore outgrowth, and the growth of vegetative cells of Paenibacillus odorifer, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Viridibacillus arenosi, which are the predominant spore-forming spoilage bacteria in milk. For spore germination and outgrowth assays, varying concentrations (25-400 mg/L) of the glycolipid product were added to commercial UHT whole and skim milk inoculated with ∼4 log10 spores/mL of each bacteria and incubated at 30°C for 5 d. Inhibition of spore germination in inoculated UHT whole milk was only observed for V. arenosi, and only when glycolipid was added at 400 mg/L. However, concentrations of 400 and 200 mg/L markedly inhibited the outgrowth of vegetative cells from spores of P. odorifer and B. weihenstephanensis, respectively. No inhibition of spore germination or outgrowth was observed in inoculated UHT skim milk for any strain at the concentrations tested (25 and 50 mg/L). The effect of glycolipid addition on vegetative cell growth in UHT whole and skim milk when inoculated with ∼4 log10 cfu/mL of each bacteria was also determined over 21 d of storage at 7°C. Glycolipid addition at 50 mg/L was bactericidal against P. odorifer and B. weihenstephanensis in inoculated UHT skim milk through 21 d of storage, whereas 100 mg/L was needed for similar control of V. arenosi. Concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/L inhibited the growth of vegetative cells of B. weihenstephanensis and P. odorifer, respectively, in inoculated UHT whole milk, whereas 200 mg/L was also bactericidal to B. weihenstephanensis. Additional studies are necessary to identify effective concentrations for the inhibition of Viridibacillus spp. growth in whole milk beyond 7 d. Findings from this study demonstrate that natural glycolipids have the potential to inhibit the growth of dairy-spoilage bacteria and extend the shelf life of milk. Copyright © 2021 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Citation

    Lang Sun, Kathleen Atkinson, Mengtian Zhu, Dennis J D'Amico. Antimicrobial effects of a bioactive glycolipid on spore-forming spoilage bacteria in milk. Journal of dairy science. 2021 Apr;104(4):4002-4011

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    PMID: 33589263

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