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    Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia frequently suffer from cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension during the postnatal course. With the use of the inodilator levosimendan, a therapeutic approach is available in situations with catecholamine-refractory low-cardiac-output failure and severe pulmonary hypertension. Retrospective single-center cohort study. University-based, tertiary-care children's hospital neonatal ICU. Cohort of 24 infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and levosimendan therapy, without underlying major cardiac defect, treated at the University Children´s Hospital Bonn, Germany, between January 2017 and December 2018. None. Twenty-four infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia were treated with levosimendan (41% of hospitalized congenital diaphragmatic hernia infants in the study period). In 88%, the congenital diaphragmatic hernia was left-sided. The median observed-to-expected lung-to-head ratio was 36%. About 60% of the infants were supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and the mortality was 38% (9/24 infants). Levosimendan administration was associated with improvement of pulmonary hypertension severity (p = 0.013 and p = 0.000) and right ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.011 and p = 0.000) at 24 hours and 7 days after treatment. Similarly, the prevalence of left ventricular dysfunction decreased from 50% at baseline to 10% after 7 days (p = 0.026). A significant reduction in the peak inspiratory pressure was observed after drug application (p = 0.038) and a significant decrease of the Vasoactive-Inotropic Score was apparent (p = 0.022). A relevant arterial hypotension as a drug-related adverse event occurred in one patient. This is the first study exploring clinical and hemodynamic changes after levosimendan treatment in a cohort of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. An association of levosimendan application and an improvement in pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular, and left ventricular dysfunction were observed within 7 days after drug infusion. However, due to the retrospective design of this study, the results should be interpreted carefully. Copyright ©2021The Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies.


    Lukas Schroeder, Kristina Gries, Fabian Ebach, Andreas Mueller, Florian Kipfmueller. Exploratory Assessment of Levosimendan in Infants With Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2021 Feb 12

    PMID: 33591071

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