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    Review octopus ocular anatomy and describe the histopathologic findings in three octopuses diagnosed with phakitis and retinitis. Two common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) and one giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) with a history of ophthalmic disease. A literature search was performed for the ocular anatomy section. Both eyes from all three octopuses, and two control eyes, were submitted for histopathologic evaluation. Hematoxylin and eosin stain was used for standard histopathologic evaluation; GMS stain was used to screen for fungi, gram stain for bacteria; and Fite's acid fast stain for acid fast bacteria. Anatomically, the anterior chamber of the octopus has direct contact with ambient water due to an opening in the dorsal aspect of a pseudocornea. The octopus lens is divided into anterior and posterior segments. The anterior half is exposed to the environment through the opening into the anterior chamber. Neither part of the lens has a lens capsule. The retina is everted, unlike the inverted vertebrate retina, and consists of just two layers. Histopathology revealed inflammatory phakitis and retinitis of varying severity in all six eyes of the study animals. No intraocular infectious organisms were recognized but one common octopus eye had clusters of coccidian parasites, identified as Aggregata sp., in extraocular tissues and blood vessels. We describe inflammatory phakitis and retinitis in two species of octopuses. The underlying cause for the severe intraocular response may be direct intraocular infection, water quality, an ocular manifestation of a systemic disease, or natural senescence. © 2021 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.


    Michala de Linde Henriksen, Ron Ofri, Tal Shomrat, Nir Nesher, Allison Cleymaet, Maya Ross, Oren Pe'er, Dikla Arad, Julia Katzenbach, Richard R Dubielzig. Ocular anatomy and correlation with histopathologic findings in two common octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) and one giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) diagnosed with inflammatory phakitis and retinitis. Veterinary ophthalmology. 2021 May;24(3):218-228

    PMID: 33596337

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