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Fluorescence-guided surgery may improve completeness of resection in transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing disease (CD) by enabling visualization of residual tumor tissue at the margins. In this review we discuss somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) as targets for fluorescence-guided surgery and overview existing SSTR-specific imaging agents. We also compare SSTR expression in normal pituitary and corticotrophinoma tissues from human and canine CD patients to assess canines as a translational model for CD. A PubMed literature search was conducted for publications containing the terms canine, somatostatin receptor, Cushing's disease, and corticotroph adenoma. SSTR expression data from each study was documented as the presence or absence of expression or, when possible, the number of tumors expressing a given SSTR subtype within a group of tumors being studied. Studies that used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to quantify SSTR expression were selected for additional comparative analysis. SSTR5 is strongly expressed in human corticotroph adenomas and weakly expressed in surrounding pituitary parenchyma, a pattern not conclusively observed in canine patients. SSTR2 mRNA expression is similar in human normal pituitary and corticotrophinoma cells but may be significantly higher in canine normal pituitary tissue than in corticotroph tumoral tissue. Limited data were available on SSTR subtypes 1, 3, and 4. Further studies must fill the knowledge gaps related to species-specific SSTR expression, so using canine CD as a translational model may be premature. We do conclude that the expression profile of SSTR5 (i.e., high local expression in pituitary adenomas relative to normal surrounding tissues) makes SSTR5 a promising molecular target for FGS. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Emma De Ravin, Hoang Anh T Phan, Stefan Harmsen, Steve S Cho, Clare W Teng, E James Petersson, Caitlin White, Evelyn M Galban, Rebecka Hess, John Y K Lee. Somatostatin Receptor as a Molecular Imaging Target in Human and Canine Cushing Disease. World neurosurgery. 2021 May;149:94-102

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PMID: 33601082

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