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    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children. However, effective treatment against RSV is unavailable. tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are a recently discovered family of non-coding RNAs. We made an early observation that RSV infection causes significant induction of tRFs, which are mainly derived from the 5'-end of mature tRNAs (tRF5). However, their functions and biogenesis mechanism are not fully understood. Herein, we identified an enzyme responsible for the induction of a functional tRF5 derived from tRNA-Gln-CTG (tRF5-GlnCTG). We found that tRF5-GlnCTG promotes RSV replication and its induction, assessed by Northern blot and a new qRT-PCR-based method, is regulated by ribonuclease ELAC2. ELAC2-mediated tRF5 induction has never been reported. We also found that ELAC2 is associated with RSV N and NS1 proteins. Given the fact that tRF5-GlnCTG plays a role in RSV replication, the identification of ELAC2 being responsible for tRF5-GlnCTG induction could provide new insights into therapeutic strategy development against RSV infection. Copyright © 2021 Choi, Wu, Zhang, Lee, Kim, Lee and Bao.

    Citation

    Eun-Jin Choi, Wenzhe Wu, Ke Zhang, Inhan Lee, In-Hoo Kim, Yong Sun Lee, Xiaoyong Bao. ELAC2, an Enzyme for tRNA Maturation, Plays a Role in the Cleavage of a Mature tRNA to Produce a tRNA-Derived RNA Fragment During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection. Frontiers in molecular biosciences. 2021 Feb 02;7:609732


    PMID: 33604354

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