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    Among different synthetic compounds copper (Cu) is persistently and frequently used as growth promoter, antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic agent and has become common environmental pollutant. Therefore, this study explores the cardio-toxic effects of control group (10 mg/kg bw Cu) and treatment group (125 and 250 mg/kg bw Cu), and it association with process of autophagy and metabolomics in myocardium of pigs kept in three different experimental treatments for a period of 80 days. The results of serum biochemical parameters showed a significantly increase in creatinine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in pigs exposed to 125 mg/kg bw and 250 mg/kg bw Cu. Meanwhile, the severe structural abnormalities in cardiomyocytes were found when exposed to 250 mg/kg Cu at day 80. In addition, the mRNA and proteins (Beclin1, ATG5 and LC3II) expression levels were significantly increased and p62 was significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes exposed to 250 mg/kg Cu at day 80 of the trial. Further, UPLC-QTOF/MS technique showed that 7 metabolites were up-regulated and 37 metabolites were down-regulated in cardiomyocytes after 250 mg/kg Cu treatment, with a principal impact on the metabolic pathways including glycerophospholipid metabolism, one carbon pool by folate, fatty acid elongation and fatty acid degradation, which were related to autophagy. Overall, our study identified the autophagy processes and metabolites in metabolic pathways in Cu-induced myocardium injury, which provided useful evidence of myocardium toxicity caused by Cu exposure via metabolomics and multiple bioanalytic methods. Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Quanwei Li, Jianzhao Liao, Chaiqin Lei, Jian Shi, Hui Zhang, Qingyue Han, Jianying Guo, Lianmei Hu, Ying Li, Jiaqiang Pan, Zhaoxin Tang. Metabolomics analysis reveals the effect of copper on autophagy in myocardia of pigs. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2021 Apr 15;213:112040

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    PMID: 33610943

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