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To assess the value of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)-score at baseline in predicting survival in adult primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients. In the HOVON 105/ ALLG NHL 24 phase III study patients with newly-diagnosed PCNSL were randomized between high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab. Data on potential (MMSE-score), and known baseline prognostic factors (age, performance status, serum LDH, cerebrospinal fluid total protein, involvement of deep brain structures, multiple cerebral lesions, and the IELSG-score) were collected prospectively. Multivariable stepwise Cox regression analyses were used to assess the prognostic value of all factors on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among patients with available MMSE score at baseline. Age was analyzed as continuous variable, the MMSE-score both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. In univariable analysis, age, MMSE-score and whether the patient received rituximab were statistically significantly prognostic factors for PFS. Age and MMSE-score were statistically significantly associated with OS. In a multivariable analysis of the univariately significant factors only MMSE-score was independently associated with the survival endpoints, as a continuous variable (HR for PFS 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08; OS 1.06 (95% CI 1.02-1.10) and as categorical variable HR (< 27 versus ≥ 27 for PFS 1.55 (1.02-2.35); OS 1.68 (1.05-2.70). In our population, performance status, serum LDH, and CSF protein level were not of prognostic value. Neurocognitive disturbances, measured with the MMSE at baseline, are an unfavorable prognostic factor for both PFS and OS in adult PCNSL patients up to 70 years-old.


Matthijs van der Meulen, Linda Dirven, Katerina Bakunina, Martin J van den Bent, Samar Issa, Jeanette K Doorduijn, Jacoline E C Bromberg. MMSE is an independent prognostic factor for survival in primary central nervous system lymphoma. Journal of neuro-oncology. 2021 Apr;152(2):357-362

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PMID: 33611761

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