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Myelin, multilayered lipid-rich membrane extensions formed by oligodendrocytes around neuronal axons, is essential for fast and efficient action potential propagation in the central nervous system. Initially thought to be a static and immutable process, myelination is now appreciated to be a dynamic process capable of responding to and modulating neuronal function throughout life. While the importance of this type of plasticity, called adaptive myelination, is now well accepted, we are only beginning to understand the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms by which neurons communicate experience-driven circuit activation to oligodendroglia and precisely how changes in oligodendrocytes and their myelin refine neuronal function. Here, we review recent findings addressing this reciprocal relationship in which neurons alter oligodendroglial form and oligodendrocytes conversely modulate neuronal function. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Sarah E Pease-Raissi, Jonah R Chan. Building a (w)rapport between neurons and oligodendroglia: Reciprocal interactions underlying adaptive myelination. Neuron. 2021 Apr 21;109(8):1258-1273

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PMID: 33621477

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