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    The range of procedures with documented feasibility by laparoscopic approach is widening in the setting of liver resections. Many technical limits have been overcome in the attempt to reduce the biological impact of major procedures [1-8]. Similarly, associated liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS)-which could be assumed as the paradigm of maxi-invasiveness-has recently been proposed in a minimally invasive fashion to reduce the impact of this procedure [9-12]. Technical insights to perform laparoscopic ALPPS are provided. Perioperative and intraoperative tips for laparoscopic ALPPS are provided within a SMART (Strategy to Minimize ALPPS Risks by Targeting invasiveness) protocol. Stage 1: After volumetric and functional assessment, partial liver transection is performed, keeping intact both the hilum and the caval plane (to prevent adhesions), therefore avoiding portal ligation. No inert material is left inside the abdominal cavity at the end of procedure to keep the liver surfaces apart. Radiologic portography with portal vein embolization is scheduled on postoperative day (POD) 1. Liver volume (pre-PVE: 29%; post-PVE: 52%) and liver function measured through a Technetium-99 hepatobiliary scintigraphy [13] (pre-PVE: 2.15%/min/sqm; post-PVE: 3.67%/min/sqm) of the future remnant liver are reassessed within 10 days to verify whether size and function are adequate. Stage 2: After 2 weeks from the first stage, laparoscopic right hepatectomy is performed following an anterior approach. No conversion to open was required. Operative time was 100 and 300 minutes for stage 1 and 2, respectively. Intraoperative blood loss was 50 and 300 ml for the two procedures. Postoperative course was uneventful; patient was discharged on POD 6 of the second operation. The implementation of a perioperative protocol to prevent the risk of liver failure by both assessing volume and function of FLR and targeting the invasiveness of the surgical procedure may allow to minimize and control risks of a maximally invasive procedure, such as ALPPS.


    G Fiorentini, F Ratti, F Cipriani, R Quattromani, M Catena, M Paganelli, L Aldrighetti. The SMART-ALPPS Protocol: Strategy to Minimize ALPPS Risks by Targeting Invasiveness. Annals of surgical oncology. 2021 Feb 24

    PMID: 33625636

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