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The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the generation of 3D models and 3D prints of complex cases for physicians at the example of an intricate left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). LVOTO is a known complication of mitral valve surgery. A 38-year-old female patient with increasing dyspnoea after mitral valve replacement was referred to our centre. Echocardiography showed a strut of the bioprosthetic heart valve protruding into the left ventricular outflow tract. However, the diagnosis of a LVOTO was difficult based on echocardiography alone. Therefore, we fabricated a physical model of the left ventricular outflow tract, the mitral valve, the aortic valve and the left ventricle. With this physical model in hand, we were able to visualize the LVOTO and to discuss potential therapeutic options. Moreover, we were able to plan the subsequent redo surgery in detail using the model. This case shows the benefit of 3D printing technologies for surgeons and patients, not only for analysis, but also during the decision-making and pre-operative planning process. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.


Ralf Sodian, Michael Kruttschnitt, Niklas Hitschrich, Bernhard Mumm, Christian Schnell, Christian Hagl, Nikolaus Thierfelder, Fabian König. 3-dimensional printing for the diagnosis of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction after mitral valve replacement. Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. 2021 May 10;32(5):724-726

PMID: 33647986

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