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    To examine reports of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) during pregnancy for evidence of fetal risk. PubMed was used to locate relevant literature for the years 1998-2020 and reference lists were examined for materials not located electronically. Ten reports were located dealing with 67 births over 20 years. Stimulation was applied is all trimesters, at low and high frequency, and as intermittent theta-burst stimulation. No mother or baby experienced a serious event. Certainty awaits large, standardized studies. However, the available reports provide no evidence that TMS to mother during pregnancy has detrimental effects on the fetus.


    Saxby Pridmore, Yvonne Turnier-Shea, Marzena Rybak, William Pridmore. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) during pregnancy: a fetal risk factor. Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. 2021 Apr;29(2):226-229

    PMID: 33653123

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