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With an increasing life expectancy and aging population, orthopedic defects and bone graft surgeries are increasing in global prevalence. Research to date has advanced the understanding of bone biology and defect repair mechanism, leading to a marked success in the development of synthetic bone substitutes. Yet, the quest for functionalized bone grafts prompted the researchers to find a viable alternative that regulates cellular activity and supports bone regeneration and healing process without causing serious side-effects. Recently, researchers have introduced natural medicinal compounds (NMCs) in bone scaffold that enables them to release at a desirable rate, maintains a sustained release allowing sufficient time for tissue in-growth, and guides bone regeneration process with minimized risk of tissue toxicity. According to World Health Organization (WHO), NMCs are gaining popularity in western countries for the last two decades and are being used by 80% of the population worldwide. Compared to synthetic drugs, NMCs have a broader range of safety window and thus suitable for prolonged localized delivery for bone regeneration. There is limited literature focusing on the integration of bone grafts and natural medicines that provides detailed scientific evidences on NMCs, their toxic limits and particular application in bone tissue engineering, which could guide the researchers to develop functionalized implants for various bone disorders. This review will discuss the emerging trend of NMC delivery from bone grafts, including 3D-printed structures and surface-modified implants, highlighting the significance and potential of NMCs for bone health, guiding future paths toward the development of an ideal bone tissue engineering scaffold. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: To date, additive manufacturing technology provids us with many advanced patient specific or defect specific bone constructs exhibiting three-dimensional, well-defined microstructure with interconnected porous networks for defect-repair applications. However, an ideal scaffold should also be able to supply biological signals that actively guide tissue regeneration while simultaneously preventing post-implantation complications. Natural biomolecules are gaining popularity in tissue engineering since they possess a safer, effective approach compared to synthetic drugs. The integration of bone scaffolds and natural biomolecules exploits the advantages of customized, multi-functional bone implants to provide localized delivery of biochemical signals in a controlled manner. This review presents an overview of bone scaffolds as delivery systems for natural biomolecules, which may provide prominent advancement in bone development and improve defect-healing caused by various musculoskeletal disorders. Copyright © 2021 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Susmita Bose, Naboneeta Sarkar, Dishary Banerjee. Natural medicine delivery from biomedical devices to treat bone disorders: A review. Acta biomaterialia. 2021 May;126:63-91

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PMID: 33657451

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