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Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) deficiency is a rare monogenic disorder characterised by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, red hair and hyperphagic obesity. Two unrelated cases presented with hypoglycaemia due to isolated ACTH deficiency in the neonatal period. POMC deficiency was suspected at age 2 years (c.133-2A>C) and at age 9 months (c.64del) due to infantile hyperphagic obesity. Neither patient had a convincing red hair phenotype at the time of diagnostic suspicion, illustrating the importance of suspecting POMC deficiency in isolated ACTH deficiency. Both patients have normal psychomotor development, whereas the only other reported case of c.64del had significant delay. This suggests, if ACTH deficiency is treated early in the neonatal period, that psychomotor retardation is not a part of the phenotype. We review 24 reported cases of POMC deficiency published to date. Although there is no current specific treatment for obesity in POMC deficiency, we anticipate that setmelanotide may be a useful future treatment option. © 2021 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

Citation

Lara E Graves, Joseph M Khouri, Peter Kristidis, Charles F Verge. Proopiomelanocortin deficiency diagnosed in infancy in two boys and a review of the known cases. Journal of paediatrics and child health. 2021 Apr;57(4):484-490

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PMID: 33666293

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