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In the past few decades, obesity has reached pandemic proportions. Obesity is among the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, since chronic fat accumulation leads to dysfunction in vascular endothelium and to a precocious arterial stiffness. So far, not all the mechanisms linking adipose tissue and vascular reactivity have been explained. Recently, novel findings reported interesting pathological link between endothelial dysfunction with gut hormones and gut microbiota and energy homeostasis. These findings suggest an active role of gut secretome in regulating the mediators of vascular function, such as nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) that need to be further investigated. Moreover, a central role of brain has been suggested as a main player in the regulation of the different factors and hormones beyond these complex mechanisms. The aim of the present review is to discuss the state of the art in this field, by focusing on the processes leading to endothelial dysfunction mediated by obesity and metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance. The role of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), gut hormones, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and the CNS function in controlling satiety have been considered. Further understanding the crosstalk between these complex mechanisms will allow us to better design novel strategies for the prevention of obesity and its complications.


Valentina Rovella, Giuseppe Rodia, Francesca Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo, Umberto Campia, Annalisa Noce, Eleonora Candi, David Della-Morte, Manfredi Tesauro. Association of Gut Hormones and Microbiota with Vascular Dysfunction in Obesity. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 13;13(2)

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PMID: 33668627

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