Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous endocrine disease. The hypothesis that alterations in the microbiome are involved in the genesis of PCOS has been postulated. Aim of this review is to summarize the available literature data about the relationship between microbiome and PCOS. A search on PubMed and Medline databases was performed from inception to November 20Most of evidence has focused on the connection of intestinal bacteria with sex hormones and insulin-resistance: while in the first case, a relationship with hyperandrogenism has been described, although it is still unclear, in the second one, chronic low-grade inflammation by activating the immune system, with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines which interfere with insulin receptor function, causing IR (Insulin Resistance)/hyperinsulinemia has been described, as well as the role of gastrointestinal hormones like Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY), bile acids, interleukin-22 and Bacteroides vulgatus have been highlighted. The lower genital tract microbiome would be affected by changes in PCOS patients too. The therapeutic opportunities include probiotic, prebiotics and synbiotics, as well as fecal microbiota transplantation and the use of IL-22, to date only in animal models, as a possible future drug. Current evidence has shown the involvement of the gut microbiome in PCOS, seen how humanized mice receiving a fecal transplant from women with PCOS develop ovarian dysfunction, immune changes and insulin resistance and how it is capable of disrupting the secondary bile acid biosynthesis. A future therapeutic approach for PCOS may involve the human administration of IL-22 and bile acid glycodeoxycholic acid.


Pierluigi Giampaolino, Virginia Foreste, Claudia Di Filippo, Alessandra Gallo, Antonio Mercorio, Paolo Serafino, Francesco Paolo Improda, Paolo Verrazzo, Giuseppe Zara, Cira Buonfantino, Maria Borgo, Gaetano Riemma, Chiara De Angelis, Brunella Zizolfi, Giuseppe Bifulco, Luigi Della Corte. Microbiome and PCOS: State-of-Art and Future Aspects. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Feb 19;22(4)

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 33669557

View Full Text