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    Gadolinium is extensively used in pharmaceuticals and is very toxic, so its sensitive detection is mandatory. This work presents the elaboration of a gadolinium chemical sensor based on 2-methylpyridine-substituted cyclam thin films, deposited on gold electrodes, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The 2-methylpyridine-substituted cyclam (bis-N-MPyC) was synthesized in three steps, including the protection of cyclam by the formation of its CH2-bridged aminal derivative; the product was characterized by liquid 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Spin-coated thin films of bis-N-MPyC on gold wafers were characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy in ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectance) mode, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. The impedimetric chemical sensor was studied in the presence of increasing concentrations of lanthanides (Gd3+, Eu3+, Tb3+, Dy3+). Nyquist plots were fitted with an equivalent electrical circuit including two RC circuits in series corresponding to the bis-N-MPyC film and its interface with the electrolyte. The main parameter that varies with gadolinium concentration is the resistance of the film/electrolyte interface (Rp), correlated to the rate of exchange between the proton and the lanthanide ion. Based on this parameter, the detection limit obtained is 35 pM. The bis-N-MPyC modified gold electrode was tested for the detection of gadolinium in spiked diluted negative urine control samples.


    Hassen Touzi, Yves Chevalier, Marie Martin, Hafedh Ben Ouada, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault. Detection of Gadolinium with an Impedimetric Platform Based on Gold Electrodes Functionalized by 2-Methylpyridine-Substituted Cyclam. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland). 2021 Feb 28;21(5)

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    PMID: 33670860

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