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    West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread and devastating disease, especially in those who develop neuroinvasive disease. A growing body of evidence describes sequelae years after infection, including neurological complications and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Eighty-nine out of 373 WNV-positive cases were followed for approximately two years and compared to 127 WNV-negative controls with and without CKD. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were calculated via a log binomial regression to determine the impact of WNV exposure and other possible confounders on the likelihood of developing CKD. Cytokine profiles of WNV patients and controls were evaluated to characterize differences and describe potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. The associated risk for developing CKD was significantly associated with history of WNV infection (aRR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13-3.25). Additionally, five distinct cytokines were found to be significantly associated with WNV infection (eotaxin, IL-8, IL-12p70, IP-10, and TNF╬▒) after the p-value was adjusted to <0.0019 due to the Bonferroni correction. These data support that WNV infection is an independent risk factor for CKD, even after accounting for confounding comorbidities. WNV participants who developed CKD had high activity of proinflammatory markers, indicating underlying inflammatory disease. This study provides new insights into CKD resultant of WNV infection.


    Michael Hansen, Melissa S Nolan, Rodion Gorchakov, Rodrigo Hasbun, Kristy O Murray, Shannon E Ronca. Unique Cytokine Response in West Nile Virus Patients Who Developed Chronic Kidney Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study. Viruses. 2021 Feb 17;13(2)

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    PMID: 33671257

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