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    The Gram-negative bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae employs gliding motility to move rapidly over solid surfaces. Gliding involves the movement of the adhesin SprB along the cell surface. F. johnsoniae spreads on nutrient-poor 1% agar-PY2, forming a thin film-like colony. We used electron microscopy and time-lapse fluorescence microscopy to investigate the structure of colonies formed by wild-type (WT) F. johnsoniae and by the sprB mutant (ΔsprB). In both cases, the bacteria were buried in the extracellular polymeric matrix (EPM) covering the top of the colony. In the spreading WT colonies, the EPM included a thick fiber framework and vesicles, revealing the formation of a biofilm, which is probably required for the spreading movement. Specific paths that were followed by bacterial clusters were observed at the leading edge of colonies, and abundant vesicle secretion and subsequent matrix formation were suggested. EPM-free channels were formed in upward biofilm protrusions, probably for cell migration. In the nonspreading ΔsprB colonies, cells were tightly packed in layers and the intercellular space was occupied by less matrix, indicating immature biofilm. This result suggests that SprB is not necessary for biofilm formation. We conclude that F. johnsoniae cells use gliding motility to spread and maturate biofilms.

    Citation

    Keiko Sato, Masami Naya, Yuri Hatano, Yoshio Kondo, Mari Sato, Keiji Nagano, Shicheng Chen, Mariko Naito, Chikara Sato. Biofilm Spreading by the Adhesin-Dependent Gliding Motility of Flavobacterium johnsoniae. 1. Internal Structure of the Biofilm. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Feb 14;22(4)

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    PMID: 33672911

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