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Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a distinct and aggressive variant of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with worse prognosis and few treatment options. It is often managed with the same treatment modalities with temozolomide (TMZ) as in GBM. However, the therapeutic benefits on GSM from such treatment regimen is largely unknown. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have been used widely to model tumor progression, and subsequently to validate biomarkers and inform potential therapeutic regimens. Here, we report for the first time the successful development of a PDX model of secondary GSM. Tissue obtained from a tumor resection revealed a secondary GSM arising from GBM. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological records of the patient were retrospectively reviewed. Samples obtained from surgery were cultured ex vivo and/or implanted subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice. Histopathological features between the primary GBM, secondary GSM, and GSM PDX are compared. In explant culture, the cells displayed a spindle-shaped morphology under phase contrast microscopy, consistent with the sarcomatous component. GSM samples were subcutaneously engrafted into immunocompromised mice after single-cell suspension. Xenografts of serial passages showed enhanced growth rate with increased in vivo passage. We did not observe any histopathological differences between the secondary GSM and its serial in vivo passages of PDX tumors. Our PDX model for GSM retained the histopathological characteristics of the engrafted tumor from the patient. It may provide valuable information to facilitate molecular and histopathological modelling of GSM and be of significant implication in future research to establish precise cancer medicine for this highly malignant tumor.

Citation

Karrie Mei-Yee Kiang, Andrian A Chan, Gilberto Ka-Kit Leung. Secondary gliosarcoma: the clinicopathological features and the development of a patient-derived xenograft model of gliosarcoma. BMC cancer. 2021 Mar 11;21(1):265

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PMID: 33706745

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