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    Presenilin 1 (PS1) is an intramembrane protease, the active subunit of the γ-secretase complex. Its well-studied function is the amyloidogenic cleavage of the C-terminal fragment of the amyloid precursor protein, also known as C99, to produce the Abeta peptide. Recent findings from the Greengard laboratory suggest that PS1 also have anti-amyloidogenic activities, which reduce Abeta levels. First, it redirects APP-C99 toward autophagic degradation, lowering the amount that can be converted into Abeta. The protein kinase CK1γ2 phosphorylates PS1 at Ser367. Phosphorylated PS1 at this position interacts with Annexin A2, which, in turn, interacts with the lysosomal N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) Vamp8. Annexin A2 facilitates the binding of Vamp8 to the autophagosomal SNARE Syntaxin 17 to modulate the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. Thus, PS1 phosphorylated at Ser367 has an anti-amyloidogenic function, promoting autophagosome-lysosome fusion and increasing C99 degradation. Second, it enhances the ability of microglia to phagocyte and degrade extracellular Abeta oligomer, through regulating the expression of the lysosomal master regulator TFEB. Thus, PS1 has a role in both the production and the clearance of Abeta. Drugs designed to activate CK1γ2 and increase the level of PS1 phosphorylated at Ser367 should be useful in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Victor Bustos, Maria V Pulina, Jose Ledo. Amyloidogenic and anti-amyloidogenic properties of presenilin 1. Advances in pharmacology (San Diego, Calif.). 2021;90:239-251

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    PMID: 33706935

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