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Group 1 pulmonary hypertension (or pulmonary arterial hypertension) is a rare, highly complex, and progressive disorder that is incurable and ultimately can lead to premature death. PAH causes significant physical, social, work, and emotional burdens among affected patients and their caregivers. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is required for best outcomes; however, the clinical presentation of PAH is nonspecific and frequently overlaps with several other conditions, often leading to a delay in diagnosis or misdiagnosis. In the past decades, increased understanding of the pathobiology of PAH has led to changes in its definition. Additionally, contemporary PAH registries have shown greater survival rates among patients with PAH and have allowed for the development of risk calculator tools that are now used to drive therapeutic goals. To date, multiple PAH-specific therapies have been developed, and all currently target one of 3 pathways that contribute to the endothelial dysfunction pathogenesis of PAH (prostacyclin, endothelin, and nitric oxide pathways). Because PAH is classified into 7 subgroups, it is essential that individuals are grouped appropriately for the efficacy of treatment and avoidance of harm. As health-related quality of life for PAH is multifactorial, it is important that patients are involved in the clinical decision-making process and have access to multidisciplinary care. The purpose of this review is to update healthcare professionals on the management of PAH with the most current information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic considerations.


Deborah Jo Levine. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: updates in epidemiology and evaluation of patients. The American journal of managed care. 2021 Mar;27(3 Suppl):S35-S41

PMID: 33710842

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