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    Pistachio (pistacia vera L.) is a lignocellulosic raw material. One of the most pistachio produced three countries in the World is Turkey and Şanlıurfa is the city that most pistachio production in Turkey. As a result of this production, a large amount of pistachio waste is generated. Therefore, this study was conducted considering the abundant pistachio waste and furthermore, the effects of ozone and combined (ozone and hot water) pretreatments for bioethanol production from pistachio shells were investigated. Initially, the ozone and combined pretreatments were applied to the pistachio shells. It has been observed that applying the combined pretreatment provides better lignin removal than only ozone pretreatment and on the other hand, the ozone pretreatment provides better lignin removal than the hot water pretreatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of pretreated and untreated pistachio shells were compared. Enzyme activity was measured, and 30-60 FPU enzyme loading was applied in an enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis was applied to obtain fermentable sugar from the pistachio shells after pretreatments. As a result of enzymatic hydrolysis, 2.34-8.24 g/L reducing sugar was obtained. On the other hand, 1.21-2.33 g/L ethanol concentration was obtained end of the fermentation process. Fermentation efficiency was calculated between 42% and 55%. As a result, this study showed that combined pretreatment was more effective than the single pretreatment in the ethanol production process.


    Betül Göncü, Hakki Gülşen, Emir Zafer Hoşgün. Bioethanol production from pistachio (pistacia vera L.) shells applying ozone pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Environmental technology. 2021 Jun;42(15):2438-2446

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    PMID: 33719935

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