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The habit of smoking remains a severe public health problem. Heavy metals in cigarettes and mainstream smoke have been extensively investigated. This study has attempted to determine the essential and toxic elements in a biological sample of smokers and non-smokers. In this case-control study, 100 smokers were compared with 100 age- and gender-matched non-smoker healthy subjects. The smoker group was selected via the snowball sampling method. Serum concentrations of trace elements were determined using ICP-MS (Agilent 7900) for subsequent analysis. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using t test or Mann-Whitney U test along with chi-square test at the significant level of less than 0.05. The results of this study indicated that subjects in the smoker group compared with non-smokers had a significantly higher median of manganese (Mn) (11.5 [5.7-17.2] versus 6 [4-12.5] (μg/L), p = 0.003), copper (Cu) (40 [34-47.2] versus 34 [29-42] (μg/L), p = 0.005), arsenic (As) (39 [9-49.2] versus 12 [5-42] (μg/L), p = 0.007), thallium (Tl) (0.54 [0.27-0.68] versus 0.34 [0.11-0.66] (μg/L), p = 0.04), and lower iron (Fe) concentration (218 [156-508] versus 429 [192-573] (μg/L), p = 0.03). This study found that the concentrations of Mn, Cu, As, and TI in cigarette smokers were significantly higher than those obtained from the control group. These results can provide health policymakers with the necessary information to take public health measures towards preventive interventions in the community, though further studies are still warranted. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


Samaneh Nakhaee, Alireza Amirabadizadeh, Mahshid Ataei, Homeira Ataei, Mahmood Zardast, Mohammad Rasool Shariatmadari, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi-Mirzaei, Omid Mehrpour. Comparison of serum concentrations of essential and toxic elements between cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2021 Jul;28(28):37672-37678

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PMID: 33721162

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