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Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been reported to be unregulated in many cancers and to suppress tumor suppressor genes like p53 leading to cell proliferation. Studies to report its relationship with carcinoma cervix (Ca Cx) are still scant. Serum NGAL levels were analyzed in 30 patients of histopathologically proven locally advanced Ca Cx at the time of diagnosis and 3 weeks after standard chemoradiation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These patients underwent either brachytherapy or supplementary external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) depending on the response of treatment. The results were analyzed statistically by applying Student's paired t-test. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in patients of Ca Cx before and after treatment or when compared stage wise, histopathological grade wise, or response wise. But the levels were found to increase when duration of treatment was ≥8 weeks (P = 0.040) and to decrease significantly when duration of treatment was <8 weeks (P = 0.0052). The NGAL levels also increased significantly after treatment in patients who received EBRT and supplementary radiotherapy (P = 0.019) while the pre- and post-treatment difference in NGAL levels was not statistically significant in patients who received EBRT + intracavitary brachytherapy (P > 0.05). As the duration as well as modality of treatment is quite important in Ca Cx, shorter duration associated with better results and lower NGAL levels, NGAL might prove to be a useful biomarker although further studies are needed to support the claim.


Rakesh Dhankhar, Sandeep Chhabra, Kiran Dahiya, Veena Singh Ghalaut, Sunder Singh, Keerti Gupta. Chemoradiation in locally advanced Ca Cx: Effect on NGAL levels. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics. 2021 Jan-Mar;17(1):198-203

PMID: 33723155

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