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A variety of factors can cause vaginal loss. The patients are suffering from great psychological and physical pain, and there is an urgent need for vagina reconstruction. 3D-bioprinting is expected to achieve vaginal morphological restoration and true functional reconstruction. The current study aimed to explore the biomimetic 3D vagina tissue printing with acellular vagina matrix (AVM) bioink. The AVM from pig was converted to bioink by 15% gelatin and 3% sodium alginate mixed with the AVM solution. Rheology, scanning electron microscopy and HE staining were performed to characterize the bioink's viscosity, morphologies and biocompatibility. After printing, the viability of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the printed 3D scaffolds in vitro was investigated by a live/dead assay kit. Then, subcutaneous transplantation in rats were divided randomly into 3D scaffold group and 3D scaffold encapsulating CM-Dil-labeled BMSCs group. The results of HE, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining revealed that 3D scaffold encapsulating BMSCs expressed significant effects on the vascularization and epithelization of the printed vagina tissue, and the BMSCs could acquire the phenotype of vaginal epithelial cells and endothelial-like cells. The work showed that the biomimetic 3D vagina tissue with AVM bioink encapsulating BMSCs is a promising approach for vagina reconstruction. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Chenxiao Hou, Jiahua Zheng, Zhongkang Li, Xuejun Qi, Yanpeng Tian, Mingle Zhang, Jingkun Zhang, Xianghua Huang. Printing 3D vagina tissue analogues with vagina decellularized extracellular matrix bioink. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2021 Jun 01;180:177-186

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PMID: 33737175

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