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    A large gap exists between laboratory findings and successful implementation of bioremediation technologies for the treatment of chromium (Cr)-contaminated sites. This work conducted the enhanced bioremediation of Cr(VI) in situ via the addition of organic carbon (ethanol) coupled with a dynamic groundwater recirculation (DGR)-based system in a field-scale study. The DGR system was applied to successfully (1) remove Cr(VI) from groundwater via enhanced flushing by the recirculation system and (2) deliver the biostimulant to the heterogeneous subsurface environment, including a sand/cobble aquifer and a fractured bedrock aquifer. The results showed that the combined extraction and bioreduction of Cr(VI) were able to reduce Cr(VI) concentrations from 1000 to 2000 mg/L to below the clean-up goal of 0.1 mg/L within the operation period of 52 days. The effectiveness of Cr(VI) bioremediation and the relationship between microbial communities and geochemical parameters were evaluated. Multiple-line of evidence demonstrated that the introduction of ethanol significantly stimulated a variety of bacteria, including those responsible for denitrification, sulfate reduction and reduction of Cr(VI), which contributed to the establishment of reducing conditions in both aquifers. Cr(VI) was removed from groundwater via combined mechanisms of physical removal through the DGR system and the bioreduction of Cr(VI) followed by precipitation. In particular, it was found competitive growth among Cr(VI)-reducing bacteria (such as the enrichment of Geobacter, along with the reduced relative abundance of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) was induced by ethanol injection. Furthermore, Cr(VI), total organic carbon, NO2-, and SO42- played important roles in shaping the composition of the microbial community and its functions. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.


    Xin Song, Qing Wang, Peng Jin, Xing Chen, Shiyue Tang, Changlong Wei, Kang Li, Xiaoyan Ding, Zhiwen Tang, Heng Fu. Enhanced biostimulation coupled with a dynamic groundwater recirculation system for Cr(VI) removal from groundwater: A field-scale study. The Science of the total environment. 2021 Jun 10;772:145495

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    PMID: 33770851

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