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    Bromide (Br-) is a typical scavenger to sulfate radical (SO4•-) and hydroxyl radical (HO•), which simultaneously forms secondary reactive bromine species (RBS) such as Br• and Br2•-. This study investigated the effects of Br- at fresh water levels (~μM) on the radical chemistry in the UV/peroxydisulfate (UV/PDS) process by combining the degradation kinetics of probe compounds (nitrobenzene, metronidazole, and benzoate) with kinetic model. Br- at 1 - 50 μM promoted the conversion from SO4•- to HO• and RBS in the UV/PDS process. At pH 7, the concentration of SO4•- monotonically decreased by 31.5 - 94.8% at 1 - 50 μM Br-, while that of HO• showed an increasing and then decreasing pattern, with a maximum increase by 171.7% at 5 μM Br-. The concentrations of Br• and Br2•- (10-12 - 10-10 M) were 2 - 3 orders of magnitude higher than SO4•- and HO•. Alkaline condition promoted the conversion from SO4•- to HO•, and drove the transformation from RBS to HO•, resulting in much lower concentrations of RBS at pH 10. Br- at 1 μM and 5 μM decreased the pseudo-first-order reaction rates (k's) of 15 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) by 15.2 - 73.9%, but increased k's of naproxen and ibuprofen by 13.7 - 57.3% at pH 7. The co-existence of 10 - 1000 μM Cl- with 5 μM Br- further promoted the conversion from SO4•- to HO• compared to Br- alone. Bicarbonate consumed SO4•- and HO• but slightly affected RBS, while natural organic matter (NOM) exerted scavenging effects on HO• and RBS more significantly than SO4•-. This study demonstrated that Br- at fresh water levels significantly altered the radical chemistry of the UV/PDS process, especially for promoting the formation of HO•. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Anna Wang, Zhechao Hua, Zihao Wu, Chunyan Chen, Shaodong Hou, Bangjie Huang, Yuge Wang, Ding Wang, Xuchun Li, Chuanhao Li, Jingyun Fang. Insights into the effects of bromide at fresh water levels on the radical chemistry in the UV/peroxydisulfate process. Water research. 2021 Jun 01;197:117042

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    PMID: 33784605

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