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Nurse-led pelvic floor muscle exercise and lifestyle education programs are effective first-line interventions for women with stress incontinence (SI). To develop an evidence-based stress incontinence care protocol (SICP) using the Stevens Star Model of Knowledge Transformation and evaluate its effect on the frequency and quantity of urinary incontinence, quality of life, pelvic muscle self-efficacy levels, and lifestyle variables of women with SI. An SICP was developed on the basis of the Star model. The views of an expert were consulted for testing the content validity of the protocol. Using a pretest-posttest experimental design, 68 women with SI who visited an outpatient clinical at a hospital in Turkey were prospectively enrolled in the intervention (n = 34) and control (n = 34) groups. After obtaining baseline demographic and health history information, participants completed the King's Health Questionnaire, the Broome Pelvic Muscle Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, a 3-day voiding diary, and a 1-hour pad test. The intervention group received an 8-week program of care according to the Star model-derived SICP, and follow-up assessments were completed by both groups after 8 and 12 weeks. The content validity index for the SICP was 91.9%. The intervention group had a reduced quantity and frequency of urinary leakage, reduced King's Health Questionnaire scores, and increased Broome Pelvic Muscle Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale scores (P < .05). Care provided according to the Star model-derived SICP reduced the quantity and frequency of SI and improved the perceived pelvic muscle exercise self-efficacy and quality of life of the participants.


Emel Gülnar, Nurcan Çalişkan. The Development and Effectiveness of a Care Protocol Using the Stevens Star Model of Knowledge Transformation in Female Patients With Stress Incontinence: An Experimental Study. Wound management & prevention. 2021 Mar;67(3):36-47

PMID: 33788774

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