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    Background: Outdoor smoke-free policies (SFPs) at sports clubs represent an important new area of tobacco control, as many people, including youth, spend a large portion of their free time participating in sports. Nevertheless, the majority of sports clubs worldwide still have not adopted an outdoor SFP. The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions of key stakeholders at different Dutch sports clubs concerning the adoption of an outdoor SFP. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were held with 41 key stakeholders at seven Dutch sports clubs (in field hockey, football, tennis, or korfball) without an outdoor SFP. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Results: The majority of respondents reported considerations that were favorable towards adoption of an outdoor SFP, including expected support from club members, changing social norms with regard to smoking, and few members who smoke. Most of all, respondents valued the protection of children from the harmful effects of smoking. However, they also foresaw a number of problems in case of adoption, including impaired social functioning of the sports club, problems with compliance and enforcement, conflict with smokers' interest, and low priority in club management. Conclusions: Although stakeholders at sports clubs recognize the intrinsic value of an outdoor SFP, they foresee practical problems that are inherent to sports clubs. Adoption could be enhanced by articulating the importance of protecting children from the harmful effects of smoking, referring to 'success stories' at sports clubs that are already smoke-free, and actively involving smokers in the adoption process.


    Heike H Garritsen, Andrea D Rozema, Ien A M van de Goor, Anton E Kunst. Smoke-Free Sports in The Netherlands: Why Most Sports Clubs Have Not Adopted an Outdoor Smoke-Free Policy. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021 Mar 02;18(5)

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    PMID: 33801520

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