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During biomineralization, the cells generating the biominerals must be able to sense the external physical stimuli exerted by the growing mineralized tissue and change their intracellular protein composition according to these stimuli. In molluscan shell, the myosin-chitin synthases have been suggested to be the link for this communication between cells and the biomaterial. Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) belong to the same enzyme family as chitin synthases. Their product hyaluronan (HA) occurs in the bone and is supposed to have a regulatory function during bone regeneration. We hypothesize that HASes' expression and activity are controlled by fluid-induced mechanotransduction as it is known for molluscan chitin synthases. In this study, bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were exposed to fluid shear stress of 10 Pa. The RNA transcriptome was analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). HA concentrations in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. The cellular structure of hMSCs and HAS2-overexpressing hMSCs was investigated after treatment with shear stress using confocal microscopy. Fluid shear stress upregulated the expression of genes that encode proteins belonging to the HA biosynthesis and bone mineralization pathways. The HAS activity appeared to be induced. Knowledge about the regulation mechanism governing HAS expression, trafficking, enzymatic activation and quality of the HA product in hMSCs is essential to understand the biological role of HA in the bone microenvironment.

Citation

Sebastian Reiprich, Elif Akova, Attila Aszódi, Veronika Schönitzer. Hyaluronan Synthases' Expression and Activity Are Induced by Fluid Shear Stress in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Mar 18;22(6)

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PMID: 33803805

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