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    The pathogenesis of preeclampsia begins when a fertilized egg infiltrates the decidua, resulting in implantation failure (e.g., due to extravillous trophoblast infiltration disturbance and abnormal spiral artery remodeling). Thereafter, large amounts of serum factors (e.g., soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 and soluble endoglin) are released into the blood from the hypoplastic placenta, and preeclampsia characterized by multiorgan disorder caused by vascular disorders develops. Successful implantation and placentation require immune tolerance to the fertilized egg as a semi-allograft and the stimulation of extravillous trophoblast infiltration. Recently, exosomes with diameters of 50-100 nm have been recognized to be involved in cell-cell communication. Exosomes affect cell functions in autocrine and paracrine manners via their encapsulating microRNA/DNA and membrane-bound proteins. The microRNA profiles of blood exosomes have been demonstrated to be useful for the evaluation of preeclampsia pathophysiology and prediction of the disease. In addition, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells have been found to have cancer-suppressing effects. These exosomes may repair the pathophysiology of preeclampsia through the suppression of extravillous trophoblast apoptosis and promotion of these cells' invasive ability. Exosomes secreted by various cells have received much recent attention and may be involved in the maintenance of pregnancy and pathogenesis of preeclampsia.


    Keiichi Matsubara, Yuko Matsubara, Yuka Uchikura, Takashi Sugiyama. Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia: The Role of Exosomes. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Mar 04;22(5)

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    PMID: 33806480

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