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    Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic hormone with multiple functions in several tissues and organs, including the brain. PRL decreases lesion-induced microgliosis and modifies gene expression related to microglial functions in the hippocampus, thereby providing a possible mechanism through which it might participate in neuroimmune modulatory responses and prevent neuronal cell damage. However, the direct contribution of microglial cells to PRL-mediated neuroprotection is still unclear and no studies have yet documented whether PRL can directly activate cellular pathways in microglial cells. The aim of this study is to elucidate in vitro actions of PRL on the immortalized SIM-A9 microglia cell line in basal and LPS-stimulated conditions. PRL alone induced a time-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. Pretreatment with PRL attenuated LPS (200 ng/ml) stimulated pro-inflammatory markers: nitric oxide (NO) levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukins (IL)-6, -1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) expression at 20 nM dosage. PRL suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κappaB (NF-κB) p65 subunit phosphorylation and its upstream p-ERK1/2 activity. In conclusion, PRL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated SIM-A9 microglia by downregulating pro-inflammatory mediators corresponding to suppression of LPS-activated ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation.


    Preethi Jayakumar, Carlos G Martínez-Moreno, Mary Y Lorenson, Ameae M Walker, Teresa Morales. Prolactin Attenuates Neuroinflammation in LPS-Activated SIM-A9 Microglial Cells by Inhibiting NF-κB Pathways Via ERK1/2. Cellular and molecular neurobiology. 2021 Apr 05

    PMID: 33821330

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