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    Strong experimental evidence from studies in human donor retinas and animal models supports the idea that the retinal pathology associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involves mitochondrial dysfunction and consequent altered retinal metabolism. This chapter provides a brief overview of mitochondrial structure and function, summarizes evidence for mitochondrial defects in AMD, and highlights the potential ramifications of these defects on retinal health and function. Discussion of mitochondrial haplogroups and their association with AMD brings to light how mitochondrial genetics can influence disease outcome. As one of the most metabolically active tissues in the human body, there is strong evidence that disruption in key metabolic pathways contributes to AMD pathology. The section on retinal metabolism reviews cell-specific metabolic differences and how the metabolic interdependence of each retinal cell type creates a unique ecosystem that is disrupted in the diseased retina. The final discussion includes strategies for therapeutic interventions that target key mitochondrial pathways as a treatment for AMD.


    Deborah A Ferrington, M Cristina Kenney, Shari R Atilano, James B Hurley, Emily E Brown, John D Ash. Mitochondria: The Retina's Achilles' Heel in AMD. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 2021;1256:237-264

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    PMID: 33848005

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