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    The term "Total petroleum hydrocarbons" (TPH) is used to describe a complex mixture of petroleum-based hydrocarbons primarily derived from crude oil. Those compounds are considered as persistent organic pollutants in the terrestrial environment. A wide array of organic amendments is increasingly used for the remediation of TPH-contaminated soils. Organic amendments not only supply a source of carbon and nutrients but also add exogenous beneficial microorganisms to enhance the TPH degradation rate, thereby improving the soil health. Two fundamental approaches can be contemplated within the context of remediation of TPH-contaminated soils using organic amendments: (i) enhanced TPH sorption to the exogenous organic matter (immobilization) as it reduces the bioavailability of the contaminants, and (ii) increasing the solubility of the contaminants by supplying desorbing agents (mobilization) for enhancing the subsequent biodegradation. Net immobilization and mobilization of TPH have both been observed following the application of organic amendments to contaminated soils. This review examines the mechanisms for the enhanced remediation of TPH-contaminated soils by organic amendments and discusses the influencing factors in relation to sequestration, bioavailability, and subsequent biodegradation of TPH in soils. The uncertainty of mechanisms for various organic amendments in TPH remediation processes remains a critical area of future research. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Son A Hoang, Binoy Sarkar, Balaji Seshadri, Dane Lamb, Hasintha Wijesekara, Meththika Vithanage, Chathuri Liyanage, Pabasari A Kolivabandara, Jörg Rinklebe, Su Shiung Lam, Ajayan Vinu, Hailong Wang, M B Kirkham, Nanthi S Bolan. Mitigation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-contaminated hazardous soils using organic amendments: A review. Journal of hazardous materials. 2021 Mar 22;416:125702

    PMID: 33866291

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