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Surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity is important to identify temporal trends, evaluate the impact of clinical practice changes or interventions, and monitor quality of care. A common source for severe maternal morbidity surveillance is hospital discharge data. On October 1, 2015, all hospitals in the United States transitioned from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification coding for diagnoses and procedures. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the transition from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification coding systems on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity in the United States in hospital discharge data. Using data from the National Inpatient Sample, obstetrical deliveries between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2017, were identified using a validated case definition. Severe maternal morbidity was defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (January 1, 2012, to September 30, 2015) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (October 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017) codes provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An interrupted time series and segmented regression analysis was used to assess the impact of the transition from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification coding on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity per 1000 obstetrical deliveries. From 22,751,941 deliveries, the incidence of severe maternal morbidity in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification coding era was 19.04 per 1000 obstetrical deliveries and decreased to 17.39 per 1000 obstetrical deliveries in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification coding era (P<.001). The transition to International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification coding led to an immediate decrease in the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (-2.26 cases of 1000 obstetrical deliveries) (P<.001). When blood products transfusion was removed from the case definition, the magnitude of the decrease in the incidence of SMM was much smaller (-0.60 cases/1000 obstetric deliveries), but still significant (P<.001). After the transition to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification coding for health diagnoses and procedures in the United States, there was an abrupt statistically significant and clinically meaningful decrease in the incidence of severe maternal morbidity in hospital discharge data. Changes in the underlying health of the obstetrical population are unlikely to explain the sudden change in severe maternal morbidity. Although much work has been done to validate the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for severe maternal morbidity, it is critical that validation studies be undertaken to validate the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes for severe maternal morbidity to permit ongoing surveillance, quality improvement, and research activities that rely on hospital discharge data. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Amy Metcalfe, Manal Sheikh, Erin Hetherington. Impact of the ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM transition on the incidence of severe maternal morbidity among delivery hospitalizations in the United States. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2021 Oct;225(4):422.e1-422.e11


PMID: 33872591

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