Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • diaphragm (2)
  • hernia (1)
  • humans (1)
  • hypercapnia (1)
  • hypoxia (1)
  • infant newborn (1)
  • infants (2)
  • mass (1)
  • neonates (1)
  • newborn (5)
  • research (1)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    Our aim was to summarise the current evidence and methods used to assess respiratory muscle function in the newborn, focusing on current and future potential clinical applications. The respiratory muscles undertake the work of breathing and consist mainly of the diaphragm, which in the newborn is prone to dysfunction due to lower muscle mass, flattened shape and decreased content of fatigue-resistant muscle fibres. Premature infants are prone to diaphragmatic dysfunction due to limited reserves and limited capacity to generate force and avoid fatigue. Methods to assess the respiratory muscles in the newborn include electromyography, maximal respiratory pressures, assessment for thoraco-abdominal asynchrony and composite indices, such as the pressure-time product and the tension time index. Recently, there has been significant interest and a growing body of research in assessing respiratory muscle function using bedside ultrasonography. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist is a novel ventilation mode, where the level of the respiratory support is determined by the diaphragmatic electrical activity. Prolonged mechanical ventilation, hypercapnia and hypoxia, congenital anomalies and systemic or respiratory infection can negatively impact respiratory muscle function in the newborn, while caffeine and synchronised or volume-targeted ventilation have a positive effect on respiratory muscle function compared to conventional, non-triggered or pressure-limited ventilation, respectively. IMPACT: Respiratory muscle function is impaired in prematurely born neonates and infants with congenital anomalies, such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Respiratory muscle function is negatively affected by prolonged ventilation and infection and positively affected by caffeine and synchronised compared to non-synchronised ventilation modes. Point-of-care diaphragmatic ultrasound and neurally adjusted ventilator assist are recent diagnostic and therapeutic technological developments with significant clinical applicability. © 2021. The Author(s).


    Theodore Dassios, Aggeliki Vervenioti, Gabriel Dimitriou. Respiratory muscle function in the newborn: a narrative review. Pediatric research. 2022 Mar;91(4):795-803

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 33875805

    View Full Text