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Insecticides are important in agriculture, to reduce human disease, and to decrease the nuisance of biting insects. Despite this, many have the potential for environmental impacts and toxicity in nontarget organisms. We reviewed data on the effects of insecticides based on toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) on amphibians. The few peer-reviewed publications that are available for Bti provide variable conclusions, ranging from few observable effects to evidence of acute toxicity at high concentrations. We briefly highlight the current controversies and identify key areas for future investigation.


Madelaine A Empey, Molly Lefebvre-Raine, Juan Manuel Gutierrez-Villagomez, Valerie S Langlois, Vance L Trudeau. A Review of the Effects of the Biopesticides Bacillus thuringiensis Serotypes israelensis (Bti) and kurstaki (Btk) in Amphibians. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2021 May;80(4):789-800

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PMID: 33876257

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