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    C6 deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I) in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is catalyzed by a family of enzymes known as ADARs (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA) encoded by three genes in mammals. Alternative promoters and splicing produce two ADAR1 proteins, an interferon-inducible cytoplasmic p150 and a constitutively expressed p110 that like ADAR2 is a nuclear enzyme. ADAR3 lacks deaminase activity. A-to-I editing occurs with both viral and cellular RNAs. Deamination activity is dependent on dsRNA substrate structure and regulatory RNA-binding proteins and ranges from highly site selective with hepatitis D RNA and glutamate receptor precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) to hyperediting of measles virus and polyomavirus transcripts and cellular inverted Alu elements. Because I base-pairs as guanosine instead of A, editing can alter mRNA decoding, pre-mRNA splicing, and microRNA silencing. Editing also alters dsRNA structure, thereby suppressing innate immune responses including interferon production and action. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology, Volume 8 is September 2021. Please see for revised estimates.


    Christian K Pfaller, Cyril X George, Charles E Samuel. Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA (ADARs) and Viral Infections. Annual review of virology. 2021 Apr 21

    PMID: 33882257

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