Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • ions (4)
  • normal periods (5)
  • PH1 (1)
  • sodium (6)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    To reveal the hydrochemical characteristics of karst wetland located in a subtropical area and at lower elevations in China, 27 surface water samples were collected during three periods (wet, normal, and dry) in the Huixian karst wetland to investigate the distributions, pollution, and irrigation application of 12 inorganic ions and 10 heavy metals. Based on their concentrations, the Nemerow index and the four evaluation systems of the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium concentration (SC), permeability index (PI), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) were applied to evaluate the pollution characteristics and irrigation application. It was found that the water type in this area was Ca2+-HCO3- and weakly alkaline. Regarding the 12 inorganic ions and 10 heavy metals, NH4+ exceeded the Chinese standards for drinking water with an exceedance rate of 25.93%, and the exceedance rates of Al, Mn, and Hg were 11.11%, 44.44%, and 37.04%, respectively. The spatiotemporal scaling effect on inorganic ions was lower than that of heavy metals, and the distributions of the inorganic ions and heavy metals were in the order of wet period > normal period > dry period. However, the surface water quality in the Huixian karst wetland was generally well-protected based on the pollution assessment. The Nemerow index ranged from 0.75 to 2.69, which recognized the main pollution contributors as NH4+, Mn, Al, and Hg with the contamination grade from slight pollution to moderate pollution, especially in the core area during the wet period. According to the limits of standards for irrigation water quality and environmental quality for surface water, as well as the evaluation results of the SAR, SC, PI, and RSC, the surface water in the Huixian karst wetland was generally suitable for irrigation, and the water quality in the dry period was better than that in the wet and normal periods. The surface water from site PH1 during the normal period with 19.1 μg·L-1 of Hg and site FH8 during the wet period with 13.7 mg·L-1 of NH4+ were not suitable for agricultural irrigation.


    Dan-Ni Zhu, Sheng-Zhang Zou, Jun Li, Lian-Jie Fan, Yi Zhao, Hao Xie, Tian-Long Zhu, Min-Qiang Pan, Li Xu. Pollution and Irrigation Applicability of Surface Water from Wet, Normal, and Dry Periods in the Huixian Karst Wetland, China]. Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue. 2021 May 08;42(5):2240-2250

    PMID: 33884793

    View Full Text