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    SMAD4 is a typical tumor suppressor in the TGF-β signaling pathway. In human cancers, SMAD4 is frequently mutated and inactivated. In recent years, the consequences of mutations and inactivation of SMAD4 are gradually becoming clearer. Most of the mutations have negative consequences and reduce the chances of survival of their carriers. Loss of SMAD4 functions due to mutations or abnormal expression can suppress the inhibition of tumor growth and support the tumor progression. Functions of SMAD4 and its variants in T cells are being studied extensively, to better understand the SMAD4 functions in T cells. In this review, we mainly discuss the recently reported consequences of mutations and abnormal expression of SMAD4 in tumors, and the effects of loss, deficiency or mutation of SMAD4 and its T cells, to show the use of SMAD4 mutations in cancer diagnosis and therapeutic strategies. © 2021 Wan et al.


    Rongxue Wan, Jianguo Feng, Liling Tang. Consequences of Mutations and Abnormal Expression of SMAD4 in Tumors and T Cells. OncoTargets and therapy. 2021;14:2531-2540

    PMID: 33888990

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