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Naturally derived polysaccharide biopolymer-based nanoparticles with their size and drug release potentials have appeared as promising biomaterials for osteogenic differentiation. A metallic nanoparticle (GS-AgNP) prepared from a sulfated polygalactan characterized as →3)-2-O-methyl-O-6-sulfonato-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-2-O-methyl-3,6-anhydro-α-d-galactopyranose-(1→ isolated from the marine macroalga Gracilaria salicornia exhibited a prospective osteogenic effect. Upon treatment with the studied GS-AgNP, alkaline phosphatase activity (88.9 mU/mg) was significantly elevated in human mesenchymal osteoblast stem cells (hMSCs) compared to that in the normal control (33.7 mU/mg). A mineralization study of GS-AgNPs demonstrated an intense mineralized nodule formation on the hMSC surface. A fluorescence-activated cell sorting study of osteocalcin and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression resulted in an increased population of osteocalcin (78.64%) and BMP-2-positive cells (46.10%) after treatment with GS-AgNPs (250 μg/mL) on M2 macrophages. A time-dependent cell viability study of GS-AgNPs exhibited its non-cytotoxic nature. The studied polygalactan-built nanoparticle could be developed as a promising bioactive pharmacophore against metabolic bone disorder and the treatment for osteogenesis therapy.


Kajal Chakraborty, Tima Antony, Shubhajit Dhara. Marine Macroalgal Polygalactan-Built Nanoparticle Construct for Osteogenesis. Biomacromolecules. 2021 May 10;22(5):2197-2210

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PMID: 33890786

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