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    Deuterium metabolic spectroscopy (DMS) and imaging (DMI) have recently been described as simple and robust MR-based methods to map metabolism with high temporal and/or spatial resolution. The metabolic fate of a wide range of suitable deuterated substrates, including glucose and acetate, can be monitored with deuterium MR methods in which the favorable MR characteristics of deuterium prevent many of the complications that hamper other techniques. The short T1 relaxation times lead to good MR sensitivity, while the low natural abundance prevents the need for water or lipid suppression. The sparsity of the deuterium spectra in combination with the low resonance frequency provides relative immunity to magnetic field inhomogeneity. Taken together, these features combine into a highly robust metabolic imaging method that has strong potential to become a dominant MR research tool and a viable clinical imaging modality. This perspective reviews the history of deuterium as a metabolic tracer, the use of NMR as a detection method for deuterium in vitro and in vivo and the recent development of DMS and DMI. Following a review of the NMR characteristics and the biological effects of deuterium, the promising future of DMI is outlined. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Henk M De Feyter, Robin A de Graaf. Deuterium metabolic imaging - Back to the future. Journal of magnetic resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997). 2021 May;326:106932

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    PMID: 33902815

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