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    Reconstruction of a critical-sized osseous defect is challenging in maxillofacial surgery. Despite novel treatments and advances in supportive therapies, severe complications including infection, nonunion, and malunion can still occur. Here, we aimed to assess the use of a beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold loaded with high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1) as a novel critical-sized bone defect treatment in rabbits. The study was performed on 15 specific pathogen-free New Zealand rabbits divided into three groups: Group A had an osseous defect filled with a β-TCP scaffold loaded with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (100 µL/scaffold), the defect in group B was filled with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) (10 µg/100 µL), and the defect in group C was loaded with HMGB-1 (10 µg/100 µL). Micro-computed tomography (CT) examination demonstrated that group C (HMGB-1) showed the highest new bone volume ratio, with a mean value of 66.5%, followed by the group B (rhBMP-2) (31.0%), and group A (Control) (7.1%). Histological examination of the HMGB-1 treated group showed a vast area covered by lamellar and woven bone surrounding the β-TCP granule remnants. These results suggest that HMGB-1 could be an effective alternative molecule for bone regeneration in critical-sized mandibular bone defects.

    Citation

    Ahmed Monir, Taro Mukaibo, Abdel Basit M Abd El-Aal, Tomotaka Nodai, Takashi Munemasa, Yusuke Kondo, Chihiro Masaki, Mahasen A El-Shair, Kou Matsuo, Ryuji Hosokawa. Local administration of HMGB-1 promotes bone regeneration on the critical-sized mandibular defects in rabbits. Scientific reports. 2021 Apr 26;11(1):8950


    PMID: 33903607

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