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Even patients after standard surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy still have a high risk of recurrence and metastasis. With the success of immunotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the application of immunotherapy in locally advanced NSCLC has being investigated to reduce the recurrence and metastasis. Pre-clinical studies and several phase II clinical studies had provided theoretical support and clinical evidence for neoadjuvant immunotherapy for NSCLC. This review describes the mechanism of neoadjuvant immuno-chemotherapy, summarizes up-to-date clinical studies, and analyzes efficiency and feasibility of neoadjuvant immune monotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy. Results from four studies (NCT02259621, NEOSTAR, LCMC3 and ChiCTR-OIC-17013726) showed efficiency and feasibility of neoadjuvant anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monotherapy. Neoadjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab achieved higher major pathological response rate than nivolumab monotherapy. However, the combination of nivolumab plus ipilimumab led to more severe adverse events as is seen in the NEOSTAR trial. Results from NCT02716038, SAKK 16/14 and NADIM studies suggest that the pathological response rate of neoadjuvant immune-chemotherapy is higher than neoadjuvant immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy. This review also elaborates the mechanism of chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy, and discusses the efficacy evaluation after neoadjuvant immunotherapy.


Si Chen, Zerui Zhao, Hao Long. Application of Neoadjuvant Immuno-chemotherapy in NSCLC]. Zhongguo fei ai za zhi = Chinese journal of lung cancer. 2021 Apr 20;24(4):284-292

PMID: 33910277

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