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Among all the prevalent painful conditions of the shoulder, frozen shoulder remains one of the most debated and ill-understood conditions. It is a condition often associated with diabetes and thyroid dysfunction, and which should always be investigated in patients with a primary stiff shoulder. Though the duration of 'traditional clinicopathological staging' of frozen shoulder is not constant and varies with the intervention(s), the classification certainly helps the clinician in planning the treatment of frozen shoulder at various stages. Most patients respond very well to combination of conservative treatment resulting in gradual resolution of symptoms in 12-18 months. However, the most effective treatment in isolation is uncertain. Currently, resistant cases that do not respond to conservative treatment for 6-9 months could be offered surgical treatment as either arthroscopic capsular release or manipulation under anaesthesia. Though both invasive options are not clinically superior to another, but manipulation could result in unwarranted complications like fractures of humerus or rotator cuff tear. © The Author(s) 2021.


Vivek Pandey, Sandesh Madi. Clinical Guidelines in the Management of Frozen Shoulder: An Update Indian journal of orthopaedics. 2021 Apr;55(2):299-309

PMID: 33912325

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