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Bone development is a tightly regulated process. Several integrated signaling pathways including HH, PTHrP, WNT, NOTCH, TGF-β, BMP, FGF and the transcription factors SOX9, RUNX2 and OSX are essential for proper skeletal development. Misregulation of these signaling pathways can cause a large spectrum of congenital conditions categorized as skeletal dysplasia. Since the signaling pathways involved in skeletal dysplasia interact at multiple levels and have a different role depending on the time of action (early or late in chondrogenesis and osteoblastogenesis), it is still difficult to precisely explain the physiopathological mechanisms of skeletal disorders. However, in recent years, significant progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms of these signaling pathways and genotype-phenotype correlations have helped to elucidate their role in skeletogenesis. Here, we review the principal signaling pathways involved in bone development and their associated skeletal dysplasia.


Alessandra Guasto, Valérie Cormier-Daire. Signaling Pathways in Bone Development and Their Related Skeletal Dysplasia. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Apr 21;22(9)

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PMID: 33919228

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