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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential FAs for human health. Cytochrome P450 oxygenates PUFAs to produce anti-inflammatory and pain-resolving epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs) and other oxylipins whose epoxide ring is opened by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH/Ephx2), resulting in the formation of toxic and pro-inflammatory vicinal diols (dihydroxy-FAs). Pharmacological inhibition of sEH is a promising strategy for the treatment of pain, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and other conditions. We tested the efficacy of a potent, selective sEH inhibitor, 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU), in an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Prophylactic TPPU treatment significantly ameliorated EAE without affecting circulating white blood cell counts. TPPU accumulated in the spinal cords (SCs), which was correlated with plasma TPPU concentration. Targeted lipidomics in EAE SCs and plasma identified that TPPU blocked production of dihydroxy-FAs efficiently and increased some EpFA species including 12(13)-epoxy-octadecenoic acid (12(13)-EpOME) and 17(18)-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid (17(18)-EpETE). TPPU did not alter levels of cyclooxygenase (COX-1/2) metabolites, while it increased 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and other 12/15-lipoxygenase metabolites. These analytical results are consistent with sEH inhibitors that reduce neuroinflammation and accelerate anti-inflammatory responses, providing the possibility that sEH inhibitors could be used as a disease modifying therapy, as well as for MS-associated pain relief.


Deepa Jonnalagadda, Debin Wan, Jerold Chun, Bruce D Hammock, Yasuyuki Kihara. A Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor, 1-TrifluoromethoxyPhenyl-3-(1-Propionylpiperidin-4-yl) Urea, Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. International journal of molecular sciences. 2021 Apr 28;22(9)

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PMID: 33925035

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