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In this study, active and smart packaging films were prepared by individually adding betacyanins-rich plant extracts (red pitaya flesh extract (RPFE), prickly pear fruit extract (PPFE), red beetroot extract (RBRE), globe amaranth flower extract (GAFE) and red amaranth leaf extract (RALE)) into starch/polyvinyl alcohol. The structural, physical and functional properties of the films containing betacyanins from different plant sources were compared for the first time. Results showed betacyanins from RPFE, PPFE and RBRE were betanin-type betacyanins. Betacyanins from GAFE and RALE were gomphrenin-type and amaranthin-type betacyanins, respectively. The films containing RPFE and PPFE presented more uniform cross-sections and had the highest water vapor barrier (9.37 and 9.26 × 10-11 g m-1 s-1 Pa-1) and mechanical strength (8.26 and 7.87 MPa). However, the film containing GAFE presented the lowest light transmittance but the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (EC50 = 0.47 mg/mL). All the films containing betacyanins are sensitive to pH 8-12 buffer solutions and volatile ammonia. Notably, the film containing RPFE exhibited distinct color changes (from purple-red to pink) when shrimp spoiled. Our results suggest the structural, physical and functional properties of betacyanins-rich films are closely related to the source and type of betacyanins. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Xiyu Yao, Yan Qin, Man Zhang, Jixian Zhang, Chunlu Qian, Jun Liu. Development of active and smart packaging films based on starch, polyvinyl alcohol and betacyanins from different plant sources. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2021 Jul 31;183:358-368

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PMID: 33930449

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